General Specifications - Appendix 6
AND CEMENTING VESSELS
OF THE UNITED STATES NAVY
Edition of June 1943
Chapter 6. -
and Special Equipment, Piping, Furniture.
General requirements. - All ferrous metals which are
to be painted shall be cleaned thoroughly to a bare surface before any
paint or preservative coating is applied. In no case shall paint or a preservative
be applied over damp, oily, or greasy surfaces or over any foreign
substances. Painting over rust or scale shall be avoided.
All pits and holes shall be cleaned thoroughly so
that no rust or scale remains.
Normally galvanized surfaces or other surfaces with
special protective finish shall not be painted. Ventilating fans,
however, shall be primed and interior finish painted in accordance with Navy
Department Specification 17F8. The greatest care shall be taken that
such surfaces are not disfigured or marked with symbols for identification
during assembly or installation in such a way that the symbols cannot be
removed readily without injuring the protective coating.
Care should be taken that the following items are not
Bell pulls, sheaves, and enunciator chains and
other mechanical communication devices.
Composition water ends of pumps.
Electric insulators and insulation of all kinds; special insulating coatings
may be specified.
Glands, stems, yokes, toggle gear, all machined external parts of valves.
Heat exchanging surfaces of heating or cooling equipment.
Joint faces of gaskets and packing surfaces.
Lubricating gear, such as oil holes, oil or grease cups, lubricators,
and surfaces in contact with lubricating oil.
Lubricating oil reservoirs.
Radio antennae and antennae leads.
Radio transmitters, receivers, and amplifiers, all parts.
Rods, gears, universal joints, couplings or valve operating gear.
Valve bonnets of nonferrous parts.
Zincs, wherever installed.
Subsequent to completion of all shop tests and prior
to shipment, all finished, working, and internal surfaces of machinery except
those of noncorrodible materials and boilers, and those required to be painted
shall be coated with thin film rust preventive compound (Navy Department
Specification 52C18) for protection against deterioration during shipment
and storage prior to installation and operation aboard ship. The
correct grade of thin film rust preventive compound (Navy Department
Specification 52C18) for the above surfaces is as follows: Grade III is
intended for use on corrodible interior surfaces of machinery laid up under
cover which, in normal operation, are in contact with water or steam.
Grade II is intended for use on ferrous and other corrodible metal surfaces of
machinery laid up under cover which, in normal operation are in contact with
gasoline, oil, and other media except steam or water. Grade I is
intended for use in lieu of Grade II where machinery is exposed to outdoor
weather conditions, or where any doubt exists as to the duration and
conditions of storage. The internal surfaces of main and auxiliary reduction
gears and the oil passages of main and auxiliary steam turbines shall, in all
instances, be protected by Grade I compound in lieu of Grade II
compound. Machinery whose internal surfaces are coated with the above
grades of thin film rust preventive compound may be placed in operation
without removing the protective coating. After application of any
of the above grades of rust preventive compound, a drying period of
approximately 30 to 60 minutes is necessary in order to allow the volatile
thinner to evaporate. If the freshly applied rust preventive
compound comes in contact with any objects before complete drying has occurred,
abrasion or absorption of the compound may result, leaving the slushed surface
inadequately protected against corrosion.
All flanged openings shall be closed by
blank flanges of wood bolted in place, or in the case of screwed connections
by pipe plugs; suitable soft gaskets shall be used with the flanges to
make reasonable tight joints and prevent access of air and moisture. If
the blank flanges do not afford proper protection, all finished flanges shall
be protected by other means against corrosion.
All units shall be inspected upon receipt at ship or
navy yards to insure that preservation of all materials is adequate.
Further steps for preservation as may be directed by the Supervisor of
Shipbuilding or Commandant, respectively, shall be taken if machinery is to be
stored for any length of time prior to installation.
Unless otherwise specified, all external , unmachined
surfaces of Ungalvanized ferrous metal parts of machinery shall, prior to
shipment and after a thorough cleaning, be coated with one coat of zinc
chromate primer, formula 84, or brown metal primer, Navy Department
Specification 52P26. After shipment, one or more coats of gray enamel,
Navy Department Specification 52E4, shall be applied by the shipbuilder to
secure satisfactory coverage.
All external surfaces of ungalvanized ferrous metal
piping, fittings, and valves shall, prior to shipment and after cleaning, be
given one coat of zinc chromate primer, formula 84, or brown metal primer,
Navy Department Specification 52P26. After shipment, the shipbuilder
shall apply finish coats as specified for the compartment wherein.
All internal and external surfaces of ungalvanized
sheet-metal work shall be given one coat of zinc chromate primer, formula 84,
or brown metal primer, Navy Department Specification 52P26, and finish coats
as specified for the compartment wherein.
All heated unmachined external surfaces of
ungalvanized ferrous metal parts of machinery such as turbine casings, boiler
drums, etc., whether they are to be later covered with heat insulating
material or not, shall, prior to shipment and after thorough cleaning, be
coated with one coat of heat-resisting paint, Navy Department Specification
All heated external surfaces of ungalvanized ferrous
metal piping, fittings, and valves shall, prior prior to shipment and after
thorough cleaning, be coated with one coat of heat-resisting paint, Navy
Department Specification 52P19.
All heated surfaces, internal and external , of
ungalvanized ferrous sheet-metal work such as boiler inside casing, etc.,
shall be given one coat of heat-resisting paint, Navy Department Specification
In special cases, unmachined external surfaces of
castings may be finished up smooth by filling with a suitable hardening
cement. Such parts should be finished with one coat of paint or
enamel. If located inside the vessel, the color of the finish shall be
light gray enamel, Navy Department Specification 52E4. If located
outside, the finish color shall match the surrounding structure.
Painting of external surfaces of nonferrous metal
castings, piping or other parts is, ordinarily, not required prior to or
during installation, except in the case of the aluminum alloys. For the
latter, all parts shall be given one coat of zinc chromate primer, formula 84,
or brown metal primer, Navy Department Specification 52P26. before assembly or
installation. Radio equipment, and other special parts shall not be
painted if special finishes have been applied in accordance with the purchase
Zinc chromate paint shall be used for touching up
rivets, welded joints, and defective coatings in assemblies of galvanized
material which cannot be galvanized after fabrication.
Painting of details after installation and prior
to final completion. - All exposed metal parts shall be finished after
installation on board ship in accordance with a schedule prepared by the
shipbuilder and approved by the Bureau or the Bureau's inspector.
General. - The painting of various types of
shipboard electrical equipment is specified in the following paragraphs.
The intent of the requirements specified herein is to provide a finish which
has suitable preservative properties to protect vital electrical equipment
against deterioration incident to shipboard service while at the same time
reducing to a minimum any fire hazard resulting from lack of restrictions as
to the type of paint and number of coats used. These objectives are
basically achieved by the use of a "two coat" system, consisting of
a primer first coat and a reasonably hard semigloss second coat, using paints
which produce a flame-resistant finish. It is essential that paints of
the types specified be used and that the number of coats be
restricted. It is further essential that any retouching necessary incidental
to the installation be accomplished in a manner to result in no more than the
specified number of coats. That is previous coats must be removed on any
affected surfaces requiring repainting. These requirements shall apply
in general to the equipment indicated except where otherwise specifically
Cleaning. - Before painting any electrical
equipment, as herein after specified, the surfaces to be painted shall have
dirt, dust, mill scale, grease, oil, and irregularities due to welding
operations removed and the surface shall be in a clean and smooth
condition. Before the surfaces have an opportunity to reacquire any dirt
or corrosion, they shall be thoroughly cleaned by one of the following two
Method A. - All surfaces shall be
given a balanced hot iron and zinc phosphate treatment to form a uniform
crystalline coating of iron and zinc phosphate, followed by a final rinse in
dilute chromic acid solution (0.5 pound chromic acid per 100 gallons of
Method B. - All surfaces shall be thoroughly washed with a
volatile grease solvent, a vapor degreasing process, or a hot alkali
cleaning solution. If the alkali solution is used it should be
followed by a water-rinse. Following the washing, the surfaces shall
be sand or grit blasted where necessary to insure adhesion of the
Care shall be taken in handling to prevent the
collection of corrosion-forming agents on the surfaces after cleaning and
prior to priming.
Primer Coat. - Immediately following the
cleaning operation and before any corrosion-forming agents have
collected, the surface shall be thoroughly dried and a primer coat shall be
applied to the surfaces being painted. Zinc Chromate primer, formula 84,
or brown metal primer, Navy Department Specification 52P26 shall be used for
this primer coat. Other primers may be used when specifically approved
by the Bureau of Ships.
Motors and Generators. - Prior to installation
(usually at the manufacturer's plant) - Motors and generators shall have
non-working ferrous surfaces painted as follows:
Cleaning and priming shall be accomplished in
accordance with the following paragraphs.
Internal surfaces of field frames shall have one
coat of black varnish, Navy Department Specification 52V1 or black
insulating varnish, Navy Department Specification 52V13.
Internal surfaces of end brackets and enclosing
parts shall have one coat of gray machinery enamel Navy Department
Specification 52E4 except that for totally enclosed propulsion motors and
generators the color shall be white.
External surfaces shall have one finish coat of
gray machinery enamel, Navy Department Specification 52E4.
After installation in the vessel, motors and
generators shall receive only such additional paint as may be necessary to
restore any finish damaged in connection with installation. Repainting
of such surfaces shall be accomplished by removing previous coats from the
effected areas, cleaning and repainting in the same manner as specified
for the painting prior to installation. If motors are installed in
topside locations exposed to the weather, an additional finish coat as
specified for the surfaces of the vessel in the area where installed shall be
applied over the light gray machinery enamel.
Switchboards, Power, and Lighting. - The
requirements of this paragraph shall apply to switchboards and panels for
power and lighting applications and for electric propulsion.
Prior to installation (usually at the manufacturers
plant), painting shall be as follows:
All ungalvanized ferrous portions including panels
and structural frames, after fabrication including welding, machining,
drilling, and tapping but prior to assembly of equipment in the boards,
shall be cleaned and the primer coat specified above applied.
Care shall be taken to insure that any surfaces impracticable to paint after
fabrication are coated with primer prior to assembly.
One coat of gray machinery enamel, Navy Department
Specification 52E4, shall be applied to all surfaces given the primer coat.
Each front panel shall be smooth and free from nicks, scratches, and
unevenness in the finish.
After complete assembly, the the front surface of
the front panels shall be given a second finish coat of gray machinery
enamel and all other surfaces previously painted with gray machinery enamel
shall be retouched by removing the previous coat and repainting where
scarred during assembly.
All copper and aluminum buss bars on open
switchboards shall be painted with two coats of red-colored insulating
paint, Navy Department Specification 17116, or other paint approved
for this purpose. The coating shall be a flexible, tough, moisture and
acid resisting material having an insulating value of at least 500 volts per
mil. thickness of coating.
The two coats of paint shall be applied
to the bus bars after assembly, each of approximately 0.004 to 0.006 inch
thickness. Prior to the painting, burrs and sharp edges shall be
removed and the bus bars cleaned to remove dust, grease, oil, or other
foreign material. The paint may be applied by spraying or flowed
on with a soft bristle brush when spraying is impracticable. The
coatings shall be applied evenly and shall be free from pin holes.
Special care shall be exercised to obtain a good coating on all edges and
projecting parts such as joints, bolts, and nuts. Additional coats shall
be applied over these parts as necessary to insure adequate insulation and
prevent the entrance of air or moisture to the joint.
After installation in the vessel,
switchboards shall receive only such additional painting as may be necessary
to restore any finish damaged in connection with the installation.
Repainting of ferrous surfaces shall be accomplished by cleaning, priming, and
application of finish coat to the areas effected in the same manner as
specified for painting prior to installation. Scratches and mars on bus
bar painting and all joints disassembled during installation shall be
repainted in accordance with the requirements for painting bus bars as
specified for prior to installation.
Electric Cable. - Prior to
installation the cable will be painted in connection with its manufacture as
required by the applicable cable specifications.
During installation, after the cable has
been pulled in, but prior top strapping in place, and before the stuffing
tubes are packed, steel or aluminum armored cables (other than terminal ends
on backs of switchboards and panels or inside fittings and connection boxes)
shall be given a thorough inspection and if in good condition, i.e. factory
painting not marred or scraped off in spots in the process of handling or
pulling in the vessel, shall be given the finish coats of compartment painting
only. If required, due to having been marred or scraped, the cables
shall be painted at those places with one coat of zinc chromate primer, Navy
Department Specification 52P18 or brown metal primer Navy Department
Specification 52P26 after which the finish coats of compartment painting shall
be applied. Where the cables pass through stuffing tubes or terminal
tubes, particular care shall be taken to paint surfaces within the gland areas
with the compound as specified on Bureau standard plans for stuffing tubes and
terminal tubes and to paint other areas with the primer before packing and
assembling the gland nuts of these tubes. Cable supporting structure
unless galvanized or zinc-plated after fabrication shall be given the
prime coat prior to strapping the cables in place.
After secured in position, all cables
and supporting structure shall be painted with the finish coat of the
compartment paint or exterior paint used for the surfaces interior and
exterior on which the cable are located.
Metal enclosures. - Requirements
of this paragraph shall apply to metal enclosures for:
Electrical panels, terminal boxes,
fittings, fixtures, etc., including all those in accordance with Bureau
standard plans as well as others.
Enclosures for electrical
equipment in general (except Radio Equipment) not otherwise
Prior to installation all
metallic surfaces including the boxes and covers both inside and out shall be
painted as follows:
At the manufacturers shop, after
fabrication including welding, brazing, machining, drilling, and tapping,
and including brazing in of terminal tubes where this is done by the
manufacturer, the surfaces shall be cleaned, dried and the prime coat
applied in accordance with lines
4 to 10 page 31.
Either at the manufacturer's shop of
at the installing yard as specified by the purchasing activity, one finish
coat of an alkyd resin base, light gray machinery enamel, conforming to Navy
Department Specification 52E4 shall be applied over the prime coat (or
coats) to all surfaces inside and out except threaded surfaces. This
gray enamel coat shall preferably be applied at the manufacturer's
plant for those types of enclosures where subsequent brazing of
terminal tubes or other work which would destroy this coat, will not be done
on the enclosure by the installing yard. For enclosures of a type
requiring brazing of terminal tubes or other work which would destroy a
major portion of the enamel coat if previously applied, the order shall
specify that only the prime coat be applied by the installing activity after
the enclosure has been prepared for installation.
After installation. If any
additional brazing or other work has been done on the enclosure after its
installation such that the previous painting is damaged in a manner to result
in possible corrosion, the affected areas shall be cleaned, primed, and given
one coat of the gray enamel to restore the protective coating.
Otherwise, no additional painting is required for enclosures not exposed to
the weather. However, the compartment painting may be applied over the
gray enamel if desired in order to avoid "masking" of these
enclosures when accomplishing such painting. Where the enclosures are
installed in locations exposed to the weather, an additional finish coat as
specified for the surfaces of the vessel in the area where installed shall be
applied to the external surfaces over the light gray machinery enamel.
Interior communication and fire control
equipment. - The requirements of this paragraph shall apply to switchboards
and instruments used for interior communication and fire control applications
under the cognizance of the Bureau of Ships:
Prior to installation this equipment is
normally supplied to the installing activities in a finished state by the
manufacturer and does not require additional painting. In general,
unless otherwise specified, the painting by the manufacturer shall be as
Cleaning and priming in accordance
with preceding paragraph 1.
One coat of alkyd resin base gray
enamel in accordance with Navy Department Specification 52E4, except that it
shall have a color rating of N-4.5 on the Munsell scale.
After installation only such painting as
is necessary to restore any paint damaged in connection with the installation
is required and shall be accomplished in the same manner specified for the
painting prior to installation by removing the previous coats from the damaged
areas and applying primer and finish paint as specified above. Care
should be taken to prevent damage to internal mechanisms when accomplishing
the repainting. Threaded type terminal tubes shall be installed in
instruments on which the finish paint has been applied by the manufacturer in
order to reduce the amount of repainting required in connection with the
installation of terminal tubes.
Color Designations. - All
emergency lighting fixtures both metal and phenolic shall be indicated by one
coat of green enamel, Navy Department Specification 52P37, applied to the
exterior surfaces over the gray enamel in the case of metal fixtures or
directly over the phenolic surfaces for molded fixtures.
All battle telephone jack boxes and
telephone switchboxes shall be indicated by one coat of red paint on the
cover. This shall be an alkyd base paint, Navy Department Specification
52P31, applied either in lieu of or over the gray enamel finish coat
specified in paragraph 5.
General. - Piping below
the level of the floor plates shall not be painted, unless made of steel
unprotected by galvanizing, in which case the piping shall be given two coats
of zinc-chromate, formula 84, and a top coat of the same paint as the finish
in the bilge.
All canvas pipe lagging shall
be given one coat canvas preservative, Navy
Department Specification 52C26 of a color as approved to suit the adjacent
bulkheads or decks.
All cold bare pipe shall be finish
painted to match adjacent bulkhead or decks.
Painting details for piping systems
shall be included in painting schedule required by section 1-A, chapter 1.
Salt Water Piping. - The inside
of all piping of the fire main proper, including branches to individual plugs,
and all piping furnishing circulating water to major units of auxiliary
machinery shall be coated with antifouling paint. No copper-nickel
piping or tinned copper piping on the suction and discharge sides of fire
pumps and discharge piping from condensers shall be coated during the
construction period. When piping is coated the interior surface of
valves, spools, manifolds, and fittings shall be included. Seats and
discs of valves shall not be coated.
Piping on submarines and miscellaneous
small craft such as landing boats, crash boats, etc., is not to be coated.
Piping shall be treated with a priming
coat of anticorrosive paint, formula 14, not thinned or heated, followed by
the application of a coat of cold plastic antifouling paint, Mare Island
formula 143E, not thinned, heated to 100 degrees F.
A description of a method of coating
interior of piping with plastic antifouling paint will be furnished by the
Bureau of Ships upon request.
Identification.- All piping
within and outside of machinery spaces shall be painted like surroundings, and
shall be lettered with stencils using black striping paint, formula 38, to
Lettering shall be 1 inch high, except
on small size pipes (under 2 inches in diameter) where lettering shall be
reduced proportionally to present a smart appearance. Appropriate
legends are described in appendix 10.
Gasoline piping shall be painted
entirely red, formula 40, throughout the interior of the ship. Piping
on the exterior conveying gasoline shall be painted the same color as the
surrounding structure. Valves in gasoline lines, whether inside or
outside of the vessel shall be painted red, and no other valves on the
vessel shall be so painted.
General. - Air flasks
permanently installed shall be internally cleaned and coated with primer,
formula 84 and painted to match the stowage compartment.
Commercial portable gas
cylinders of 8 to 12 inch diameter, 30 or more inches long shall be painted
for identification as shown in table III. Smaller cylinders will have
smaller neck bands in proportion to the size. All carbon dioxide (CO2)
cylinders used for fire extinguishers shall be painted red. The
identifying neck bands shall extend from the valve down to the body.
Smaller-sized cylinders shall
be painted the same color scheme as outlined in the table below except
that the width of the neck bands shall be reduced in proportion to the size or
length of the cylinder, and except that all carbon dioxide cylinders used as
fire extinguishers shall be painted red.
Aviators' breathing oxygen
cylinders for extra-dry oxygen, which are furnished in the smaller sizes,
shall be painted green, formula 39, all over with the words "Aviators'
Breathing Oxygen" stenciled in white paint, formula 6, lengthwise on the
cylinder in letters at least 1 inch in height.
Smoke Pipes and Uptakes. - The
outside of smoke pipes and of heat-resisting paint ( Navy
Department Specification 52P19) touched up as necessary to render paint intact
after installation. The outside of casing shall be primed with
zinc-chromate formula, 84D and finished as described by camouflage
Gage Boards. - Faces of all gauge
boards shall be sprayed with lacquer producing a dead black finish and shall
not be polished.
Metal furniture shall be
painted with a single coat of french gray baking enamel. A single coat
of primer, formula 84, shall be applied for protection of parts which will
become inaccessible after assembly. If necessary for satisfactory
adhesion of the finish coat, a thin priming coat may be used.
The baking enamel shall have
fire-retardant qualities in accordance with Navy
Department Specification 52E4 or 52P22, and shall be properly tinted.
Table III.- Standard
Colors for gas cylinders
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